Below is a message I just sent to our first year students about a connection between modular arithmetic and working in other bases. I don’t know if this helps, but somehow arithmetic modulo 10 always seems so easy to explain!

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In our introduction to modular arithmetic, I suggested a connection between “modulo k” and “base k”. For **positive** integers, when working modulo 10, using decimal notation, we only care about the last decimal digit. (That is the same as the remainder when you divide by 10.)

If you work in other bases, the connection is similar: base 8 (octal) is not the same thing as modulo 8, but **f****or positive integers, the remainder when you divide by 8 is the same as the last octal digit**. For example 25 in base 10 is congruent to 1 modulo 8, and 25 base 10 is written as 31 in octal. Any power of 31 (octal) still ends in 1 (octal). Returning to decimal notation, is congruent to 1 (mod 8) for all positive integers n, and so is always divisible by 8.

**Exercise:** for which positive integer values of n is divisible by 7?

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